< Previous | Contents

6.5 Opportunities for further development of the research

The digital cultural asset map which I produced has been used as part of the UK City of Culture evidence base, and there are applications for digital cultural asset mapping beyond such a live context, which are relevant beyond the remit of this research project. I would like

to develop a toolkit for cultural planning as it works in the in United Kingdom, similar to that produced in Canada (Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated, 2010) but drawing on the relevant policy and developments in this area and the lessons learned in producing my research. Examples throughout the UK of cultural mapping exist, but to date there is not a comprehensive guide for undertaking cultural mapping projects in a UK or Scottish context. Similarly as criticism has been levelled at cultural asset mapping for “projects.. underpinned by “flat” datasets that are compiled once, rather than dynamic databases that are used and maintained on a frequent, ongoing basis” (Lee and Gilmore, 2012, p.9) there is a clear opportunity to address this by exploring the legacy and longevity of my research further, developing links established during this PhD.

Linking social media analytics to digital cultural asset maps may help increase their reach and their usability across both the general population and for mapping authorities; Esri have recently developed new templates which allow the integration of tweets and Instagram posts into a map, and juxtaposition on existing data sets, which they highlight as “a good choice when you want to assess local sentiment on current events” (Esri, 2018). Jung (2015) makes an argument for integrating GIS with social media, producing code clouds by which one can extract and analyse quantitative and qualitative data. The detailed level of analysis proposed by Jung requires visual and numerical analysis, outwith the scope of my research project, but does present an opportunity for investigation. For researchers this is an interesting development, and provides distinct ethical challenges for although it may be a way to sidestep the argument that “cartographic content collectively produced via social media remains largely the expression of the values of a relatively small number of contributors with technological ability” (Caquard, 2013, p.147), if everyone is inadvertently producing a map simply by leaving a digital footprint, do researchers have the automatic right to analyse and interpret this? Applying the argument that this is “more a matter of copyright... than ethics” (Farrimond, 2013, p.184) as users are knowingly making information available online through their public profiles is a useful point in this respect, but it remains controversial as researchers should make their sources of information clear, and cite appropriately and ethically.

One of the disciplines which has the greatest potential to use multimodal asset mapping is tourism; particularly when consumer spending is now trending towards spending on unique experiences rather than owning consumables (Barclays, 2018); cultural experiences can be

highlighted and explored easily, riding on the desire for current policy aimed at encouraging European cities to tell their story through culture:

“Cultural heritage provides European countries and regions with a unique identity that creates compelling city narratives providing the basis for effective marketing strategies aimed at developing cultural tourism and attracting investment” (CHCfE Consortium, 2015, p.20)

Narrative is key to this marking, digital cultural asset mapping and the multi modal methods presented in this research can certainly help with telling the story of a place, and it been suggested that the taxonomy developed by Lynch can be applied to the place marketing (Hospers, 2010) therefore there is potential for the use of the cognitive mapping exercises to reveal the cultural landmarks and nodes perceived by residents, and repeat the exercise with visitors, businesses or different sectors of the cultural industries thereby creating a map of sub topics and features combining and drawing upon multiple perceptions of the area, with different groups . Trower (2011, p.16) cites studies relating to specific groups as diverse as gay men in London and organic farmers in New Zealand and there are also studies to suggest that musical influences are particularly suited to being mapped due to the association of musical roots with place (Shobe and Banis, 2010, Cohen, 2012b, Long, 2013). This type of practice-based research would be a useful tool to reveal consistencies and conflicts between the image of a place and its officially marketed brand.

Extending the remit of the research to follow a more structured form of digital empowerment is a possibility, participants who express a specific interest in one particular form of storytelling could be offered opportunities to engage in more storytelling and workshops to develop skills, perhaps in partnership with those who currently undertake digital initiatives (local and national initiatives exist such as CoderDojo, internationally there are possibilities through organisations such as Google Cultural Institute, Google Arts and Culture Platform or Mozilla Open Web). At a school level the use of digital storytelling ties in with Scottish Curriculum for Excellence objectives (McGillivray et al., 2015a) and international digital literacy equivalents. Digital skills are seen as increasingly important within the context of cultural management, a recent study highlighted that “four emerging job role-profiles have been identified to help museums face the digital challenges: Digital strategy manager, Digital Collections Curator, Digital Interactive Experience Developer, Online Community Manager” (Mu.SA: Museum Sector Alliance, 2017, p.3); such job titles highlight the importance of

digital skills in the cultural field and hint that digital storytelling and digital cultural asset mapping will clearly continue to be relevant techniques and methods in cultural engagement, along with the creative ethos employed in cognitive mapping.

In a critique of methods used to engage young people with the idea of place, Trell (2010) notes that creative skills are involved in making individual videos, but using video whilst doing a walking tour involves more interaction between those taking part in the research. My research did not involve walking tours, but this offers a rich field by which to investigate digital storytelling and cultural participation further. Oral history can be particularly useful for working with younger people who want a say in managing cultural sites (The Mighty Creatives, 2015) and there is some evidence that using mapping and graphics programmes can help connect generations (Historypin, 2013). Creative representations of an area may be developed through the hidden stories revealed in cognitive mapping and digital storytelling, for example a 3D rendering of a study area, or a virtual reality encounter. This could be an immersive experience, navigated through headsets such as Google cardboard, or an on-screen display for home or exhibition use.

Making memoryscapes from cognitive mapping, particularly with those who have lived in an area for a long time and have seen many changes, is a practical application of the multimodal technique, which was originally suggested by Butler (2007) as an oral history method. The work presented in section 4.0 shows the effectiveness of both cognitive mapping and digital storytelling for capturing such memories, and enabling wider dissemination of these as part of asset mapping. As “the importance of memories of the city amongst ex-residents is a neglected theme in the literature on counter-urbanisation” (Bonnett and Alexander, 2013, p.394) the replication of the methods used in this research with participants who have moved away from their home town would be a useful area for development. An increased use of arts based activities in mental health settings suggests that there may be some therapeutic benefits to engaging with cultural activities at all ages (Royal Society for Public Health, 2013, p.58, European Commission, 2015, p.11), which is of note when applying for funding to complete complementary research work in this field.

Skains (2015) argues that tracing the narrative which is present when engaging with digital technologies is difficult, as we are engaging with multiple platforms and ways of reading, often at the same time, however there is potential for integration of digital storytelling with the power of GIS as using a geotagged approach to analyse the underlying issues discussed in

a place can revealing discursive patterns which may otherwise be unseen. The extension of the practice based research to explore this further would be beneficial to the geohumanities field, especially as this is recognised as an emerging and growing area academically (Rossetto, 2013).

Multi-modal cultural asset mapping is a valuable research approach for being able to capture community voices around cultural life, and particularly relevant within the current impact- driven contemporary research environment (Research Excellence Framework, 2017) where involvement of partners is important. I feel strongly that the everyone has a right to contribute to the cultural life of their community from a primary to professional level and plan to help champion this through academic research as well as non-traditional forms of academic communication, to contribute towards original knowledge across several research fields. In considering the development of this PhD research, it is particularly relevant to note that heritage is currently one of the priority funding areas for the Arts and Humanities Research Council within the UK, which indicates a valuable opportunity for developing heritage asset mapping (Arts and Humanities Research Council, 2016, p.4). Accessing funding for cultural research and practice is easier when one can demonstrate the wide ranging benefits of a project and for those involved in cultural work, it is heartening to see studies into a recognition of the effect of investing in culture; “safeguarding cultural heritage works as a “multiplier” through which investment can have positive impacts beyond that initially intended, thereby increasing the level of benefit and sustainability of the initial investment” (CHCfE Consortium, 2015, p.15). If “relatively modest investment in cultural heritage can pay substantial dividends” (European Commission, 2015, p.5) then it is important to continue championing this cause and harnessing this leverage effect across policy domains to ensure that it remains in discussion and a diverse community of voices can be heard. Word count – 42,986


Aiello, G. and Thurlow, C. (2006) Symbolic Capitals: Visual Discourse and Intercultural Exchange in the European Capital of Culture Scheme. Language and Intercultural Communication. [Online] Vol.6 (March 2015), pp.148–162. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.2167/laic234.0.

Andrews, M. (2018) Entitlement and the shaping of First World War commemorative histories. Cultural Trends. [Online] Vol.27 (2), pp.63–67. Available: https://doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2018.1453446.

Architecture and Design Scotland (2017) Key Placemaking Issues [Online]. Available: https://www.ads.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Key-placemaking-PDF.pdf.

Arefi, M. (1999) Non-place and placelessness as narratives of loss: Rethinking the notion of place. Journal of Urban Design. Vol.4 (2), pp.179–193.

Arnstein, S. R. (1969) A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners. [Online] Vol.35 (4), pp.216–224. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/doi/pdf/10.1080/0194436690897722 5.

Arthurson, K. (2003) Neighbourhood regeneration: facilitating community involvement.

Urban Policy and Research. Vol.21 (4), pp.357–371.

Arts and Humanities Research Council (2016) Delivery Plan, 2016/17-2019/20 [Online]. Swindon. Available: http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/documents/strategy/ahrc-delivery-plan- 2016-20/.

Arts Council England (2011) Arts audiences : insight.

Ashley, a. J. (2014) Beyond the Aesthetic: The Historical Pursuit of Local Arts Economic Development. Journal of Planning History. [Online] pp.1–24. Available: http://jph.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1538513214541616.

Aszlo, L. I. (2012) Ageing Society , Ageing Culture ? In: Sixth Annual Conference of the University Network of the European Capitals of Culture. [Online]. p.284. Available: http://uneecc.ulbsibiu.ro/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/V- UNEECC_Proceedings_Maribor.pdf.

Baker, A. (2012) Vernacular GIS: Mapping Earlu Modern Geography and Socioeconomics.

In: History and GIS: Epistemologies, Considerations and Reflections. pp.89–110.

Banks, M. (2014) Being in the Zone of Cultural Work. Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research. [Online] Vol.6, pp.241–262. Available: http://www.cultureunbound.ep.liu.se/v6/a14/.

Barclays (2018) The rise of the experience economy [Online]. Investment Insight. Available:

https://www.smartinvestor.barclays.co.uk/invest/investment-insight/investment-ideas- and-strategies/the-rise-of-the-experience-economy.html [Accessed 29 May 2018].

Belfiore, E. (2016) Cultural policy research in the real world: curating “impact”, facilitating “enlightenment”. Cultural Trends. [Online] Vol.25 (3), pp.205–216. Available: https://doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2016.1204050.

Bergsgard, N. A. and Vassenden, A. (2011) The legacy of Stavanger as Capital of Culture in Europe 2008: watershed or puff of wind? International Journal of Cultural Policy.

Vol.17 (3), pp.301–320.

Boelens, L. (2006) Beyond the Plan; Towards a New Kind of Planning. disP - The Planning Review. [Online] Vol.42 (167), pp.25–40. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02513625.2006.10556966.

Boland, P. (2010) ‘Capital of Culture—you must be having a laugh!’ Challenging the official rhetoric of Liverpool as the 2008 European cultural capital. Social & Cultural Geography. [Online] Vol.11 (7), pp.627–645. Available: 10.1080/14649365.2010.508562.

Bonnett, A. and Alexander, C. (2013) Mobile nostalgias: Connecting visions of the urban past, present and future amongst ex-residents. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Vol.38 (3), pp.391–402.

BOP Consulting (2013) Cultural mapping of Aberdeen [Online]. Available: http://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.asp?lID=55336&sID=22536.

BOP Consulting (2015) HLF Major Grants – The first 100 Introduction A golden age for heritage : Major Grants from 1994 to 2014.

Brennan-Horley, C. and Gibson, C. (2009) Where is creativity in the city? Integrating qualitative and GIS methods. Environment and Planning A. Vol.41 (11), pp.2595–2614.

Brennan-Horley, C., Luckman, S., Gibson, C. and Willoughby-Smith, J. (2010) GIS, Ethnography, and Cultural Research: Putting Maps Back into Ethnographic Mapping. The Information Society. [Online] Vol.26 (2015), pp.92–103. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01972240903562712.

Brint, S. (2001) Gemeinschaft Revisited: A Critique and Reconstruction of the Community Concept. Sociological Theory. [Online] Vol.19 (1), pp.1–23. Available: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/0735-2751.00125 [Accessed 15 Jan 2018].

Bullen, C. (2010) European Capitals Of Culture And Everyday Cultural Diversity: A Comparison of Liverpool (UK) and Marseilles (France).

Butler, T. (2007) Memoryscape: How Audio Walks Can Deepen Our Sense of Place by Integrating Art, Oral History and Cultural Geography. Geography Compass. [Online]

Vol.1 (3), pp.360–372. Available: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1749- 8198.2007.00017.x [Accessed 2 Mar 2018].

Candy, L. (2006) Practice Based Research: A Guide. CCS report. [Online] Vol.1, p.19.

Available: http://www.creativityandcognition.com/resources/PBR Guide-1.1-2006.pdf.

Caquard, S. (2011) Cartography I: Mapping narrative cartography. Progress in Human Geography. Vol.37 (1), pp.135–144.

Caquard, S. (2013) Cartography II: Collective cartographies in the social media era. Progress in Human Geography. [Online] Vol.38 (1), pp.141–150. Available: http://phg.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/11/27/0309132513514005.abstract.

Cartwright, W. and Field, K. (2015) Exploring cartographic storytelling. Reflections on mapping real-life and fictional stories. International Cartographic Conference.

Chatzichristodoulou, M. (2013) New Media Art, Participation, Social Engagement and Public Funding. Visual Culture in Britain. [Online] Vol.14 (3), pp.301–318. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14714787.2013.827486.

CHCfE Consortium (2015) Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe. Civic Voice (2015) 101 Civic Ideas [Online]. Available:


Cohen, S. (2012a) Musical memory, heritage and local identity: remembering the popular music past in a European Capital of Culture. International Journal of Cultural Policy. [Online]. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10286632.2012.676641.

Cohen, S. (2012b) Live music and urban landscape: mapping the beat in Liverpool. Social Semiotics. [Online] Vol.22 (5), pp.587–603. Available: 10.1080/10350330.2012.731902.

Comunian, R., Gilmore, A. and Jacobi, S. (2015) Higher Education and the Creative Economy: Creative Graduates, Knowledge Transfer and Regional Impact Debates. Geography Compass. [Online] Vol.9 (7), pp.371–383. Available: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/gec3.12220.

Cori Wallen, D. (2006) A Critical and Historical case study of experience design. Lynchian cognitive mapping and Situationist psychogeography [Online]. PhD- Iowa State University. Available: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:No+Title#0.

Corner, J. (1999) The agency of mapping: Speculation, critique and invention. In: Cosgrove,

D. (ed.). [Online]. Reaktion Books, pp.213–252. Available: https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahU

KEwjCjq7kybPLAhVHOxQKHTB5AeYQFggcMAA&url=http://www.cfa.arizona.edu/ ahgsa/files/ahgsa/Corner_Agency-of- Mapping1.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFPjmzOjx1ETell9h21nD- 5_91mMw&sig2=9tNovV7SfVg7afyrVC7Ph.

Cornwall, A. and Jewkes, R. (1995) What is participatory research? Social Science & Medicine. [Online] Vol.41 (12), pp.1667–1676. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/027795369500127S.

Coulton, C., Chan, T. and Mikelbank, K. (2011) Finding Place in Community Change Initiatives: Using GIS to Uncover Resident Perceptions of their Neighborhoods. Journal of Community Practice. Vol.19 (1), pp.10–28.

Cox, T., McGillivray, D. and McPherson, G. (2014) Making sense of multiplicity: evaluating Scotland’s Cultural Olympiad. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. [Online] Vol.6 (3), pp.201–214. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19407963.2014.934690.

Crang, M. (2015) The promises and perils of a digital geohumanities. Cultural Geographies. [Online]. Available: http://cgj.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1474474015572303.

Create Paisley (2017a) About Create [Online]. Available: http://www.createpaisley.org.uk/about/about-create/ [Accessed 22 Feb 2018].

Create Paisley (2017b) Create Cafe Youth Drop In- Facebook event [Online]. Available: https://www.facebook.com/events/156917718055879/ [Accessed 22 Feb 2018].

Creative Enterprise Office (2018) Resources [Online]. Available: http://www.culturalenterpriseoffice.co.uk/our-services/resources/ [Accessed 28 Feb 2018].

Creative Scotland (2014) Unlocking Potential Embracing Ambition.

Creative Scotland (2018) Creative Scotland Opportunities tool [Online]. Available: https://opportunities.creativescotland.com/ [Accessed 28 Feb 2018].

Crooke, E. (2010) The politics of community heritage: motivations, authority and control.

International Journal of Heritage Studies. Vol.16 (1–2), pp.16–29.

Cunningham, P. a. (2010) The impact of media on cultural heritage: disruptive or synergistic?

Journal of Heritage Tourism. Vol.5 (3), pp.189–201.

Dallow, P. (2002) Representing creativeness: Practice- based approaches to research in creative arts. Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education. [Online] Vol.2 (1/2), pp.49–66. Available: http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/36117693/Dallow2003_Representin gCreativeness_ADCHE2-

1.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1485888274&Sig nature=07ToVT68EZDvM9P1MvLMtlftqq0%3D&response-content- disposition=inline%3B filename%3DRepr.

DCMS (2017) UK City of Culture Guidance for Bidding Cities [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/582972/U KCITYOFCULTURE2021guidance.pdf.

DeBono, E. (2012) How to Have Creative Ideas: 62 Exercises to Develop the Mind. Random House.

Delrieu, V. and Gibson, L. (2017a) Libraries and the geography of use: how does geography and asset “attractiveness” influence the local dimensions of cultural participation?

Cultural Trends. Vol.26 (1), pp.18–33.

Delrieu, V. and Gibson, L. (2017b) The effect of place and space on patterns of participation in libraries and leisure centres [Online]. Available: http://www.everydayparticipation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/UEP-Place-and- Space-report-2018.pdf [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Desire Lines (2015) Desire Lines: A call to Action from Edinburgh’s Cultural Community. [Online] p.28. Available: http://desirelines.scot/DesireLines_booklet_SCREEN.pdf.

Dobbs, L. and Moore, C. (2002) Engaging Communities in Area-based Regeneration: The Role of Participatory Evaluation. Policy Studies. Vol.23 (3), pp.157–171.

Druiff, E. and Hope, S. (2015) Cultural Policy , Innovation and the Creative Economy. [Online] pp.189–200. Available: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-349- 95112-3_13.

Ebewo, P. and Sirayi, M. (2009) The Concept of Arts/Cultural Management: A Critical Reflection. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society. Vol.38 (4), pp.281–295.

Edensor, T. and Millington, S. (2012) Blackpool Illuminations: revaluing local cultural production, situated creativity and working-class values. International Journal of Cultural Policy. (April 2015), pp.1–17.

Elwood, S. (2006) Critical issues in participatory GIS: Deconstructions, reeconstructions and new research directions. Transactions in GIS. Vol.10 (5), pp.693–708.

English Heritage (2008) Conservation Principles Policies and Guidance. London. Esri (2017) Renfrewshire Cultural Map Useage [Online]. Available:

https://ren.maps.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=69ec73c0ee0d4a9580c5259f092135f9# usage [Accessed 28 Feb 2018].

Esri (2018) Public Information [Online]. Available: http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=f01baaccb4b84bcbb9ac0810e717cae3

[Accessed 29 May 2018].

European Commission (2015) Getting cultural heritage to work for Europe [Online].

Available: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/getting-cultural-heritage-to-work-for-europe- pbKI0115128/.

European Commission (2016) The European Capital of Culture 2021 in Greece [Online].

Available: https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/sites/creative- europe/files/files/ecoc-2021-greece-selection-report_en.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2018].

Evans, G. (2005) Measure for measure: Evaluating the evidence of culture’s contribution to regeneration. Urban Studies. [Online] Vol.42 (December 2004), pp.959–983. Available: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=46&sid=40dc90c3-69f5- 4ecd-968b-93fb9cd39732@sessionmgr4003&hid=4201.

Evans, M. (2009) Creative professional practice in methods and methodology: case study examples from Ph.D’s in industrial design. Conference Proceeding of EKSIG 2009: Experiential Knowledge, Method & Methodology 19. (June), p.74.

Farrimond, H. (2013) Doing ethical research. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Feggans, N. (2016) South Ayrshire Local Development Plan Story Map. Scottish Planner. [Online] (167), pp.12–13. Available: http://www.rtpi.org.uk/media/2174578/Scottish Planner 167 - Final.pdf.

Flicker, S., Savan, B., McMcgrath, M., Kolenda, B. and Mildenberger, M. (2008) ‘If you could change one thing’ What community-based researchers wish they could have done differently. Community Development Journal. Vol.43 (2), pp.239–253.

Flinn, J. and Mcpherson, G. (2001) CULTURE MATTERS ? THE ROLE OF ART AND

CULTURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL Capital : the theoretical concept. [Online] pp.1–20. Available: http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30570946/100_Flinn- McPherson.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1457534 499&Signature=omW+nuo0MZUmPc1K4sIr1qcXCjY=&response-content- disposition=inline; filename=Culture_Matters_The_role_of_art_and.

Foley, M., McGillivray, D. and McPherson, G. (2011) Events policy: the limits of democracy. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. Vol.3 (3), pp.321–324.

Foley, M. and Mcpherson, G. (2007) Glasgow’s Winter Festival: Can cultural leadership serve the common good? Managing Leisure. Vol.12 (2–3), pp.143–156.

Freitas, R. (2016) Cultural mapping as a development tool. City, Culture and Society. Gallagher, M. (2008) Power is not an evil rethinking power in participatory methods.

Children’s Geographies,. Vol.6 (2), pp.137–150.

Garrett, B. L. (2011) Videographic geographies: Using digital video for geographic research.

Progress in Human Geography. Vol.35 (4), pp.521–541.

Gauntlett, D. and Holzwarth, P. (2006) Creative and visual methods for exploring identities.

Visual Studies. [Online] Vol.21 (1), pp.82–91. Available: http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.1080/1472586060061326 1&magic=crossref%7C%7CD404A21C5BB053405B1A640AFFD44AE3%5Cnhttp://dx


Geddes, P. (1949) Cities in evolution. London: Williams & Norgate Ltd.

Ghoneim, S. A. (2008) Impact of Cultural Policy Interventions [Online]. Available: http://preview.tinyurl.com/hnw38yj [Accessed 13 Dec 2016].

Gibson, C., Brennan-Horley, C., Laurenson, B., Riggs, N., Warren, A., Gallan, B. and Brown, H. (2012) Cool places, creative places? Community perceptions of cultural vitality in the suburbs. International Journal of Cultural Studies. [Online] Vol.15 (3), pp.287–302. Available: http://ics.sagepub.com/content/15/3/287.abstract.

Gibson, C., Brennan-Horley, C. and Warren, A. (2010) Geographic Information Technologies for cultural research: cultural mapping and the prospects of colliding epistemologies. Cultural Trends. [Online] Vol.19 (March 2015), pp.325–348. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09548963.2010.515006.

Gieseking, J. J. (2013) Where We Go From Here: The Mental Sketch Mapping Method and Its Analytic Components. Qualitative Inquiry. [Online] Vol.19 (9), pp.712–724.

Available: http://qix.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1077800413500926.

Gillespie, C. A. (2010) How Culture Constructs Our Sense of Neighborhood : Mental Maps and Children’s Perceptions of Place. Journal of Geography. Vol.109 (June 2013), pp.18– 29.

Gilmore, A. (2013) Cold Spots, Crap Towns and Cultural Deserts: The Role of Place and Geography in Cultural Participation and Creative Place-Making. Cultural Trends. [Online] Vol.22 (March 2015), pp.86–96. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2013.783174.

Gilmore, A. (2017) The park and the commons: vernacular spaces for everyday participation and cultural value. Cultural Trends. Vol.26 (1), pp.34–46.

Giovine, M. A. Di (2015) Ethics and Archaeological Praxis. [Online] pp.201–227. Available: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4939-1646-7.

Glencoats Primary School (2018) Social Studies - Glencoats Primary School [Online].

Available: https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/re/glencoatsprimary/curriculum/social-

studies/ [Accessed 29 Jun 2018].

Gold, R. L. (1958) Roles in Sociological Field Obervations. Social Forces. [Online] Vol.36 (3), pp.217–223. Available: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=13589894&site=ehost


Gómez Cruz, E. and Meyer, E. T. (2012) Creation and Control in the Photographic Process: iPhones and the emerging fifth moment of photography. Photographies. Vol.5 (2), pp.203–221.

Graham, B. (2002) Heritage as Knowledge: Capital or Culture? Urban Studies (Routledge). [Online] Vol.39 (5/6), pp.1003–1017. Available: 10.1080/00420980220128426.

Gray, C. and Malins, J. (2004) Visualizing research. A guide to the Research Process in Art and Design [Online]. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Available: http://www.intelligentagent.com/ME/Gray_Malins_Visualizing Research.pdf.

Gregory, D. (2007) The Creative License: Giving Yourself Permission to be the Artist you Truly Are. New York: Hyperion.

Gregory, J. (2014) International Journal of Heritage Connecting with the past through social media : the ‘ Beautiful buildings and cool places Perth has lost ’ Facebook group.

International Journal of Heritage Studies. [Online] (February), pp.1–24. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2014.884015.

Grodach, C. (2013) Cultural economy planning in creative cities: Discourse and practice.

International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol.37 (5), pp.1747–1765.

Guell, C. and Ogilvie, D. (2013) Picturing commuting: photovoice and seeking wellbeing in everyday travel. Qualitative Research. [Online]. Available: http://qrj.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1468794112468472.

Hall, P. (2012) Afterword : On Mapping and Maps. Design Philosophy Papers. Vol.10 (2), pp.157–162.

Harvey, D. (2003) Debates and Developments The Right to the City Vol.27 (December), pp.939–941.

Hawkins, H. (2015) Creative geographic methods: knowing, representing, intervening. On composing place and page. Cultural Geographies. [Online] Vol.22 (2), pp.247–268. Available: http://cgj.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1474474015569995.

Heikkinen, H. L. T., de Jong, F. P. C. M. and Vanderlinde, R. (2016) What is (good) practitioner research? Vocations and Learning. Vol.9 (1), pp.1–19.

Heritage Lottery Fund (2010) Thinking about ... Audience development [Online]. London.


https://www.hlf.org.uk/file/10872/download?token=z3Auu_AIuyNqu2ddyEimJdfMeTQ jwsmqc4l_Ocg3E40.

Heritage Lottery Fund (2018) The Great Place Scheme: Scotland [Online]. The Great Place Scheme. Available: https://www.greatplacescheme.org.uk/scotland [Accessed 10 Dec 2018].

Hidalgo, L. (2015) Augmented Fotonovelas: Creating New Media as Pedagogical and Social Justice Tools . Qualitative Inquiry . [Online] Vol.21 (3), pp.300–314. Available: http://qix.sagepub.com/content/21/3/300.abstract.

Hillier, Y. (2005) Reflective Teaching in Further and Adult Education. Second. New York: Bloomsbury Academic Continuum.

Historic England (2014) The Rom Skatepark [Online]. Available: https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1419328 [Accessed 2 Mar 2018].

Historic England (2017a) Understanding Place Historic Area Assessments [Online]. London.

Available: https://content.historicengland.org.uk/images- books/publications/understanding-place-historic-area-assessments/heag146- understanding-place-haa.pdf/.

Historic England (2017b) Heritage Counts 2017: Heritage and Society [Online]. Available: https://content.historicengland.org.uk/content/heritage-counts/pub/2017/heritage-and- society-2017.pdf [Accessed 1 Mar 2018].

Historic England (2018) Inclusive heritage [Online]. Available: https://historicengland.org.uk/research/inclusive-heritage/ [Accessed 10 Dec 2018].

Historic Environment Scotland (2018) Industry [Online]. Available: https://www.historicenvironment.scot/archives-and-research/our- research/industry/#projects_tab [Accessed 10 Dec 2018].

Historypin (2013) Historypin in the Community [Online]. Available: http://www.shiftdesign.org.uk/content/uploads/2015/03/Historypin_in_the_community.p df.

Hjorth, L. (2013) The place of the emplaced mobile: A case study into gendered locative media practices. Mobile Media & Communication. [Online] Vol.1 (1), pp.110–115. Available: http://mmc.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1177/2050157912459738.

Hjorth, L. and Pink, S. (2014) New visualities and the digital wayfarer: Reconceptualizing camera phone photography and locative media. Mobile Media & Communication. [Online] Vol.2, pp.40–57. Available: http://mmc.sagepub.com/content/2/1/40.short.

Holanda, F. De (2010) Sociological Architecture: A Particular Way Of Looking At Places.

Journal of Space Sybtax. [Online] Vol.1 (2), pp.337–355. Available:


Holden, J. (2015) The Ecology of Culture - AHRC Ecology of Culture [Online]. Available: http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/News-and-Events/News/Documents/AHRC Ecology of Culture (A).pdf [Accessed 26 Feb 2015].

Hospers, G.-J. (2010) after 50 Years: City Marketing Lessons from an Urban Planning Classic. European Planning Studies. Vol.18 (12), pp.2073–2081.

Houghton, K., Miller, E. and Foth, M. (2013) Integrating ICT into the planning process: impacts, opportunities and challenges. Australian Planner. [Online] Vol.51 (1), pp.24– 33. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07293682.2013.770771.

House of Commons (2016) Paisley (Cultural Contribution) - Hansard Online [Online]. Available: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-11-30/debates/63445370- 20BF-447E-8DB9-DE92DD7D2209/Paisley(CulturalContribution) [Accessed 28 Feb 2018].

Hurley, J., Lamker, C. W., Taylor, E. J., Stead, D., Hellmich, M., Lange, L., Rowe, H., Beeck, S., Phibbs, P. and Forsyth, A. (2016) Exchange between researchers and practitioners in urban planning: achievable objective or a bridge too far?/The use of academic research in planning practice: who, what, where, when and how?/Bridging research and practice through collaboration: lessons fr. Planning Theory & Practice. [Online] Vol.17 (3), pp.447–473. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14649357.2016.1190491. [Accessed 28

Feb 2018].

Hyler, S. (2013) Invisible Lines Crossing the City: Ethnographic Strategies for Place-making.

Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research. [Online] Vol.5, pp.361–384. Available: http://www.cultureunbound.ep.liu.se/v5/a23/.[Accessed 10 Jun 2015].

Institute of Historic Building Conservation (2009) Continuing Professional Development In the IHBC. Tunbridge Wells.

Islam, G. (2015) Practitioners as Theorists: Para-ethnography and the Collaborative Study of Contemporary Organizations . Organizational Research Methods . [Online] Vol.18 (2), pp.231–251. Available: http://orm.sagepub.com/content/18/2/231.abstract. [Accessed 10 Dec 2018].

Jahoda, G. (2012) Critical reflections on some recent definitions of “culture”. Culture & Psychology. [Online] Vol.18 (3), pp.289–303. Available: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1354067X12446229. [Accessed 3 Mar 2015].

Janson, A. and Howard, L. (2004) The Odyssey of Ph.D. Students Becoming a Community of Practice. Business Communication Quarterly. Vol.67 (2), pp.168–181.

Jeannotte, M. S. (2016) Story-telling about place: Engaging citizens in cultural mapping.

City, Culture and Society. [Online] Vol.7 (1), pp.35–41. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccs.2015.07.004. [Accessed 3 Feb 2015].

Jensen, E. A. (2016) Doing real research : a practical guide to social research / Eric Jensen, Charles Laurie. Los Angeles, Calif. ; London: SAGE.

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2017) UK Poverty 2017: Summary [Online]. Available: https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/50890/download?token=3jsCmyhA&filetype=full-report. [Accessed 3 July 2018].

Judd, D. and Fainstein, S. (1999) The Tourist City. London: Yale University Press.

Jung, J.-K. (2015) Code clouds: Qualitative geovisualization of geotweets. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien. [Online] Vol.59 (1), pp.52–68. Available: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cag.12133. [Accessed 10 Dec 2016].

Kawashima, N. (2010) The rise of ‘user creativity’ – Web 2.0 and a new challenge for copyright law and cultural policy. International Journal of Cultural Policy. Vol.16 (3), pp.337–353.

Keresnyei, K. (2011) The cultural industry of the EU in the light of the economic crisis.

Culture in / and Crisis [Online] Vol.5 (October), pp.2068–2123. Avalable http://uneecc.org/userfiles/File/UNeECC%20proceedings/IV%20UNEECC%20Proceedi ngs.pdf [Accessed 6 Jan 2019]

Kerski, J. J. (2015) Geo-awareness, geo-enablement, geotechnologies, citizen science, and storytelling: Geography on the world stage. Geography Compass. Vol.9 (1), pp.14–26.

Kloosterman, R. C. (2013) Cultural Amenities: Large and Small, Mainstream and Niche—A Conceptual Framework for Cultural Planning in an Age of Austerity. European Planning Studies. [Online] (March 2014), pp.1–16. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09654313.2013.790594.

Krivý, M. (2013) Don’t plan! the use of the notion of ‘culture’ in transforming obsolete industrial space. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol.37 (September), pp.1724–1746.

Langen, F. and Garcia, B. (2009) Measuring the impacts of large scale cultural events: A literature review (May), pp.1–12.

Lask, T. (2011) Cognitive maps: a sustainable tool for impact evaluation. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. Vol.3 (1), pp.44–62.

Law, J. and Ruppert, E. (2013) The Social Life of Methods: Devices. Journal of Cultural Economy. [Online] Vol.6 (3), pp.229–240. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17530350.2013.812042. [Accessed 10

December 2018]

Lee, C. Bin (2009) Cultural policy as regeneration approach in western cities: A case study of Liverpool’s RopeWalks. Geography Compass. Vol.3, pp.495–517.

Lee, D. and Gilmore, A. (2012) Mapping cultural assets and evaluating significance: theory, methodology and practice. Cultural Trends. Vol.21 (February 2015), pp.3–28.

Lennon, M. (2015) Finding Purpose in Planning. Journal of Planning Education and Research. [Online] Vol.35 (1), pp.63–75. Available: http://jpe.sagepub.com/content/35/1/63.abstract.

Linz 2009 European Capital of Culture (2009) Final Report Linz 09 Linz 2009 European Capital of Culture. Linz.

Lithgow, K. and Timbrell, H. (2014) How better volunteering can improve conservation: why we need to stop wondering whether volunteering in conservation is a good thing and just get better at doing it well. Journal of the Institute of Conservation. [Online] (April 2015), pp.1–14. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19455224.2013.873730. [Accessed 18 April 18]

Little, S., Robson, J., Lesage, D., Arlander, A., Baxter, V. and Riley, S. R. (2013) Practice as Research in the Arts. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781137282910.

Lizardo, O. (2006) How Cultural Tastes Shape Personal Networks. American Sociological Review. [Online] Vol.71 (5), pp.778–807. Available: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=23164559&site=ehost

-live. [Accessed 24 Mar 15]

Long, P. (2013) Popular music, psychogeography, place identity and tourism: The case of Sheffield. Tourist Studies. [Online] Vol.14 (1), pp.48–65. Available: http://tou.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1468797613511685. [Accessed 30 Mar 15]

Lowndes, V., Nanton, P., McCabe, A. and Skelcher, C. (1997) Networks, partnerships and urban regeneration. Local Economy. [Online] Vol.11 (4), pp.333–342. Available: http://lec.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1080/02690949708726349. [Accessed 05 Dec 15]

Lynch, K. (1960) Lynch, Kevin. In: LeGates, R. T. and Stout, F. (eds.). The City Reader. [Online]. pp.98–102. Available: http://www.laboratoriorapu.it/LPU_sito/download/Materiali_Papers/02b_08.03.26_Lync h-anthology.pdf. [Accessed 09 Dec 15]

Mah, A. (2012) Demolition for Development: A Critical Analysis of Official Urban Imaginaries in Past and Present UK Cities. Journal of Historical Sociology. Vol.25 (1), pp.151–176.

Mand, K. (2012) Giving children a ‘voice’: arts-based participatory research activities and

representation. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. Vol.15 (2), pp.149–160.

Manninen, A. (2008) Monitoring urban change and identifying future potentials: the case of the European Urban Audit and the State of European Cities Report. Urban Research & Practice. [Online] Vol.1 (3), pp.222–229. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17535060802476400. [Accessed 22 Apr 15]

Marwick, A. E. and Boyd, D. (2011) I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media & Society. Vol.13 (1), pp.114– 133.

Matheson, C. M. (2010) Legacy Planning, Regeneration and Events: The Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games. [Online] (April 2015), pp.37–41. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02690940903545364. [Accessed 22 Apr 15]

Mathews, V. (2014) Incoherence and tension in culture-led redevelopment. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol.38 (May), pp.1019–1036.

Matless, D. (2013) In the Nature of Landscape.[Online] Malden:Wiley, Available: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781118295687 [Accessed 24 Mar 15]

Matthews, P. (2012) Problem definition and re-evaluating a policy: the real successes of a regeneration scheme. Critical Policy Studies. (April 2015), pp.1–18.

McAreavey, R. (2009) Community Regeneration: An Elite or a ‘Real’ Community Space?

International Planning Studies. Vol.14 (3), pp.311–327.

McAulay, S. (8 Dec 2018) PhD Amendments [Online]. Email to A. McCandlish McDonough, Alexandra, Wekerle, G. (2011) Integrating Cultural Planning and Urban

Planning : the Challenges of Implementation Vol.20 (1), pp.27–51.

Mcgillivray, D., Jones, J., Mcpherson, G. and Mccandlish, A. (2014) Digital Commonwealth.

In: Lockton, A. (ed.). Creative Citizens’ Variety Pack: Inspiring digital ideas from community projects. [Online]. Royal College of Art. Available: http://creativecitizens.co.uk/2014/12/30/creative-citizens-variety-pack-inspiring-digital- ideas-from-community-projects/. [Accessed 10 Mar 2015]

McGillivray, D. and McPherson, G. (2012) ‘Surfing a wave of change’: a critical appraisal of the London 2012 cultural programme. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. Vol.4 (2), pp.123–137.

McGillivray, D., McPherson, G., Jones, J. and McCandlish, A. (2015a) Young people, digital media making and critical digital citizenship. Leisure Studies. [Online] (August), pp.1–

15. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02614367.2015.1062041.

[Accessed 10 Mar 2015]

McGillivray, D., McPherson, G., Jones, J. and McCandlish, A. (2015b) Young people, digital media making and critical digital citizenship. Leisure Studies. [Online] Vol.4367 (November), pp.1–15. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02614367.2015.1062041. [Accessed 10

Mar 2015]

McMillan, S. (8 Dec 2018) PhD Amendments/Additions [Online]. Email to A. McCandlish McWilliams, D. C. (2004) Including the community in local regeneration? The case of

Greater Pollok social inclusion partnership. Local Economy. [Online] Vol.19 (3), pp.264–275. Available: http://lec.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1080/0269094042000253185. [Accessed 10 Mar 2015]

Mental Health Foundation (2011) An Evidence Review of the Impact of Participatory Arts on Older People [Online]. Available: http://www.baringfoundation.org.uk/EvidenceReview.pdf. [Accessed 20 Feb 17]

Metzger, J. (2011) Strange spaces: A rationale for bringing art and artists into the planning process. Planning Theory. [Online] Vol.10 (3), pp.213–238. Available: http://plt.sagepub.com/content/10/3/213.abstract. [Accessed 27 Feb 17]

Miles, A. (2016) Telling tales of participation: exploring the interplay of time and territory in cultural boundary work using participation narratives. Cultural Trends. Taylor & Francis.

Miles, A. and Ebrey, J. (2017) The village in the city: participation and cultural value on the urban periphery. Cultural Trends. Vol.26 (1), pp.58–69.

Miles, A. and Gibson, L. (2016) Everyday participation and cultural value. Cultural Trends. [Online] Vol.25 (3), pp.151–157. Available: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09548963.2016.1204043?needAccess=ue [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Miles, A. and Sullivan, A. (2012) Understanding the relationship between taste and value in culture and sport. London:DCMS [Online] Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/77966/D CMS_taste_and_value_document.pdf [Accessed 10 Oct 2018]

Minton, D. (2005) Teaching Skills in Further and Adult Education. Third Edition. London: Thomson Learning.

Mintzes, J. J. and Novak, J. D. (2005) Assessing Science Understanding of the

Epistemological Vee Diagram. In: Mintzes, J. J., Wandersee, J. H., and Novak, J. D. (eds.). Assessing Science Understanding: A Human Constructivist View. [Online]. Elsevier, pp.41–70. Available: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=X_L29Ota09IC&lpg=PA41&pg=PA41#v=onepag e&q&f=false. [Accessed 06 Feb 2017]

Mu.SA: Museum Sector Alliance (2017) R2 . 2 Emerging Job Profiles for Museum professionals [Online]. Available: http://www.project-musa.eu/wp- content/uploads/2017/03/MuSA-Emerging-Job-Profiles-for-museum-professionals.pdf. [Accessed 05 Jan 2018]

Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated (2010) Cultural resource Mapping : a guide for Municipalities [Online]. Available: http://www.ontariomcp.ca/toolkits/CulturalResourceMapping_digital.pdf. [Accessed 20

Dec 2016]

Murthy, D. (2008) Digital Ethnography: An Examination of the Use of New Technologies for Social Research. Sociology. [Online] Vol.42 (5), pp.837–855. Available: http://soc.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0038038508094565%5Cnhttp://soc.sagepub.co m/content/42/5/837.short. [Accessed 30 Apr 15]

Mydland, L. and Grahn, W. (2012) Identifying heritage values in local communities.

International Journal of Heritage Studies. Vol.18 (6), pp.564–587.

National Heritage Training Group (2008) UK Built Heritage Sector Professionals.


Neal, C. (2015) Know your place? Evaluating the therapeutic benefits of engagement with historic landscapes. Cultural Trends. [Online] (April), pp.1–10. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09548963.2015.1031479. [Accessed 18

Apr 2015]

Németh, J. (2006) Conflict, Exclusion, Relocation: Skateboarding and Public Space. Journal of Urban Design. Vol.11 (3), pp.297–318.

Nicodemus, A. G. (2013) Fuzzy vibrancy: Creative placemaking as ascendant US cultural policy. Cultural Trends. [Online] Vol.22 (3–4), pp.213–222. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2013.817653. [Accessed 06 Apr 2015]

Niedderer, K. and Roworth-Stokes, S. (2007) the Role and Use of Creative Practice in Research and Its Contribution To Knowledge. IASDR07 - International Association of Societies of Design Research. (September 2014), pp.1–18.

O’Brien, D. and Lockley, P. (2015) The Social Life of Cultural Value. In: MacDowall, L., Badham, M., Blomkamp, E., and Dunphy, K. (eds.). Making Culture Count. New

Directions in Cultural Policy Research. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.87–103.

O’Reilly, N., Berger, I. E., Hernandez, T., Parent, M. M. and Séguin, B. (2015) Urban sportscapes: An environmental deterministic perspective on the management of youth sport participation. Sport Management Review. [Online] Vol.18 (2), pp.291–307.

Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1441352314000515 [Accessed 30 Jun 2018].

Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator (2017) Charity Details: Star Project [Online].

Available: https://www.oscr.org.uk/about-charities/search-the-register/charity- details?number=SC028133 [Accessed 22 Feb 2018].

Ozkul, D. and Humphreys, L. (2015) Record and remember: Memory and meaning-making practices through mobile media. Mobile Media & Communication. [Online]. Available: http://mmc.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1177/2050157914565846. [Accessed 25 Apr 2015]

Paisley 2021 (2017) Paisley 2021 Renfrewshire Cultural Map [Online]. Facebook. Available: https://www.facebook.com/paisley2021/posts/759705227526312 [Accessed 28 Feb 2018].

Paisley First (2016) The Trail Map is here! - Pride Of Paisley : Pride Of Paisley [Online]. Available: http://www.prideofpaisley.co.uk/the-trail-map-is-here/ [Accessed 1 Dec 2016].

PAS (2014) SP=EED, successful Planning = Effective Engagement and Delivery [Online].

Available: http://www.pas.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/SPEED_practical-guide- to-engagement-in-planning-20143.pdf [Accessed 2 Mar 2015].

PAS (2015) Place, Work, Folk. Edinburgh:PAS

PAS (2018) SP=EED® - PAS [Online]. Available: https://www.pas.org.uk/speed/ [Accessed 2 Mar 2018].

Pasquinelli, C. (2012) Competition, cooperation and co-opetition: unfolding the process of inter-territorial branding. Urban Research & Practice. (April 2015), pp.1–18.

Peel, D. (2005) Training citizens for a management role in regeneration. Planning Practice and Research. Vol.20 (4), pp.443–457.

Pendlebury, J. (2014) Conservation of the historic environment. In: Cullingworth, B, Nadin,

V. (eds.) Town and Country Planning in the UK. (15th Edition) [Online] Available: VitalSource [Accessed 2 Jan 2019]

Perkins, H. A. (2009) Turning feral spaces into trendy places: A coffee house in every park?

Environment and Planning A. Vol.41 (11), pp.2615–2632.

Perry, B., Smith, K. and Warren, S. (2015) Revealing and re-valuing cultural intermediaries in the ‘real’ creative city: Insights from a diary-keeping exercise. European Journal of Cultural Studies. [Online]. Available: http://ecs.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1367549415572324. [Accessed 24 Mar 2015]

Pietrobruno, S. (2013) YouTube and the social archiving of intangible heritage. New Media & Society. [Online] Vol.15 (8), pp.1259–1276. Available: http://nms.sagepub.com/content/15/8/1259.abstract. [Accessed 08 Mar 2015]

Pope, P. (2007) ‘I Thought I Wasn't Creative But' Journal of Social Work Practice. [Online] Vol.21 (3), pp.391–400. Available: 10.1080/02650530701553773. [Accessed 2 Jan 2019]

Ravetz, J. and Ravetz, A. (2017) Seeing the wood for the trees: Social Science 3.0 and the role of visual thinking. [Online] Vol.30 (1), pp.104–120. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13511610.2016.1224155. [Accessed 16 Dec 16]

Renfrewshire 24 (2015) Renfrewshire ranked in top ten in UK for quality of life | rn24 [Online]. Available: http://www.renfrewshire24.co.uk/2015/11/05/renfrewshire-ranked- in-top-ten-in-uk-for-quality-of-life/ [Accessed 8 Nov 2015].

Renfrewshire Community Planning Partnership (2013) Renfrewshire Community Plan 2013

– 2023 [Online]. Available: http://www.renfrewshire2023.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/11/CommunityPlan1.pdf. [Accessed 8 Nov 2015].

Renfrewshire Council (2014a) Paisley Town Centre Asset Strategy & Action Plan. Paisley: Renfrewshire Council.

Renfrewshire Council (2014b) Tackling Poverty in Renfrewshire: Tackling Poverty Strategy 2015- 2017 [Online]. Paisley. Available: http://www.renfrewshire.gov.uk/media/1040/Tackling-Poverty-Strategy-2015- 2017/pdf/TacklingPovertyStrategy.pdf. [Accessed 8 Nov 2015].

Renfrewshire Council (2017) Renfrewshire Council Plan [Online]. Available: http://www.renfrewshire.gov.uk/media/4785/Renfrewshire-Council-Plan-2017- 2022/pdf/FINAL_Council_Plan_201722_v2.pdf. [Accessed 8 Nov 2015].

Research Excellence Framework (2017) What is the REF? - REF 2021 [Online]. Available: http://www.ref.ac.uk/about/whatref/ [Accessed 2 Mar 2018].

Roar Connections for Life (2018) Annual Report 2017/18 [Online]. Paisley. Available: http://www.roarforlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Annual-Report-17-18.pdf. [Accessed 2 Jan 2019].

Roar Connections For Life (2017) ROAR Summer Newsletter. ROAR Newsletter. [Online] (23), p.4. Available: http://www.roarforlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Newsletter-

for-SUMMER-17.pdf. [Accessed 2 Jan 2019.

Roar Connections For Life (2018) Roar Clubs/Projects [Online]. Available: http://www.roarforlife.org/about_us/roar-clubs/ [Accessed 22 Feb 2018].

Rodzi, N. I. M., Zaki, S. A. and Subli, S. M. H. S. (2013) Between Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. [Online] Vol.85, pp.411–

420. Available: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S187704281302497X. [Accessed 17 Nov 2017].

Ross, N. J., Renold, E., Holland, S. A. L. and Hillman, A. (2009) Moving stories: using mobile methods to explore the everyday lives of young people in public care. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468794109343629. [Accessed 17 Nov 2017].

Rossetto, T. (2013) Theorizing maps with literature. Progress in Human Geography. [Online] Vol.38 (4), p.0309132513510587-. Available:

http://phg.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/11/19/0309132513510587.abstract. [Accessed 25 Apr 2015.


Royal Society for Public Health (2013) Arts , Health and Wellbeing Beyond the Millennium : How far have we come and where [Online]. Available: https://www.rsph.org.uk/filemanager/root/site_assets/about_us/policy_and_projects/arts

_and_health/rsph_full_report_final.pdf. [Accessed 29 Jun 2015].


Royal Town Planning Institute (2016) Continuing Professional Development (CPD).London:RTPI

Royal Town Planning Institute (2018) Planning Education and Research Network [Online].

Available: https://www.rtpi.org.uk/knowledge/research/planning-education-and- research-network/ [Accessed 10 Dec 2018].

Sainz, M. A. (2012) (Re)Building an Image for a City: Is A Landmark Enough? Bilbao and the Guggenheim Museum, 10 Years Together. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. [Online] Vol.42 (1), pp.100–132. Available: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00871.x.

[Accessed 24 Mar 2015].

Sarkissian, W., Hurford, D. and Wenman, C. (2010) Creative Community Planning: Transformative Engagement Methods for Working at the Edge [Online]. London: Earthscan. Available: http://library.uniteddiversity.coop/REconomy_Resource_Pack/Community_Assets_and_ Development/Creative_Community_Planning- Transformative_Engagement_Method.pdf. [Accessed 19 Dec 2016].

Schofield, J. (2014) Who Needs Experts ? [Online]. Available: http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9781409439356_sample_949474.pdf. [Accessed

23 Oct 2015].

Scottish Government (2008) No ordinary sculptor [Online]. Available: http://www.gov.scot/News/Releases/2008/12/23110750 [Accessed 28 Feb 2018].

Scottish Government (2016) Introducing The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) [Online]. Available: http://www.isdscotland.org/Products-and-Services/GPD- Support/Deprivation/SIMD/.[Accessed 17 Mar 2017].

Scottish Government (2017a) The Scottish Household Survey 2016: Local Authority Tables Renfrewshire [Online]. Edinburgh. Available: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0052/00528112.pdf. [Accessed 17 Mar 2017].

Scottish Government (2017b) A consultation on the future of the Scottish planning system [Online]. Edinburgh. Available: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0051/00512753.pdf [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Scottish Government (2018a) Report summarising feedback gathered during the Engagement Phase in support of developing A Culture Strategy for Scotland [Online]. Available: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/culture-strategy-engagement-report/.[Accessed 30

May 2018].

Scottish Government (2018b) National Indicator: Increase cultural engagement [Online].

Available: http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/indicator/culture#more [Accessed 1 Mar 2018].

Scottish Graduate School for Arts and Humanities (n.d.) Welcome to the Scottish Graduate School for Arts & Humanities [Online]. Available: http://www.sgsah.ac.uk/about/. [Accessed 2 Jan 2019].

Scullion, A. and García, B. (2005) What Is Cultural Policy Research? International Journal of Cultural Policy. Vol.11 (2), pp.113–127.

Sepe, M. (2013) Urban history and cultural resources in urban regeneration: a case of creative waterfront renewal. Planning Perspectives. [Online] Vol.28 (4), pp.595–613. Available: 10.1080/02665433.2013.774539%5Cnhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=tru e&db=bth&AN=92982220&site=ehost-live. [Accessed 22 Apr 2015].

Sharp, J., Pollock, V. and Paddison, R. (2005) Just art for a just city: Public art and social inclusion in urban regeneration. [Online] Vol.42 (May), pp.1001–1023. Available: http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/15305/.[Accessed 24 Mar 2015].

Shaw, S. (2015) Art crawls: Locating artists and audiences in the creative city. Ethnography . [Online] Vol.16 (1), pp.51–73. Available: http://eth.sagepub.com/content/16/1/51.abstract. [Accessed 24 Mar 2015].

Shobe, H. and Banis, D. (2010) Music Regions and Mental Maps: Teaching Cultural Geography. Journal of Geography. Vol.109 (2), pp.87–96.

Sinha, A. (1991) The conservation of sacred sites: Sarnath, a case study. Landscape Research. Vol.16 (3), pp.23–30.

Skains, R. L. (2015) The Fragmented Digital Gaze: The Effects of Multimodal Composition on Narrative Perspective. Qualitative Inquiry. [Online] Vol.21 (7), p.1077800415605054-. Available: http://qix.sagepub.com/search/results?fulltext=Lyle&x=0&y=0&submit=yes&journal_s et=spqix&src=selected&andorexactfulltext=and. [Accessed 17 Mar 2016].

Smith, J. (2015) Civic Engagement Tools for Urban Conservation [Online]. First. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118383940.ch9/summary. [Accessed 08

Mar 2015].

Smith, L. (2011) All heritage is intangible, Critical Heritage Studies and Museums. In: Reinwardt Memorial Lecture. Amsterdam: Reinwardt Academy (Amsterdam School of the Arts), p.40.[Online] Available: https://www.reinwardt.ahk.nl/fileadmin/download/reinwardt/RWA_All_heritage_WEB. pdf [Accessed 20 Oct 2018]

Star Project (2017) We Are The Walrus! [Online]. Available: http://www.star- project.org.uk/Content/We-Are-The-Walrus [Accessed 30 May 2018].

Stevenson, D. (2013) What’s the problem again ? The problematisation of cultural participation in Scottish cultural policy. Cultural Trends. Vol.22 (2), pp.77–85.

Stevenson, D., McKay, K. and Rowe, D. (2010) Tracing British cultural policy domains: contexts, collaborations and constituencies. International Journal of Cultural Policy. Vol.16 (2), pp.159–172.

Stevenson, N. (2012) Culture and the 2012 Games: creating a tourism legacy? Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. [Online] Vol.10 (2), pp.137–149. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14766825.2012.682478. [Accessed 10 Mar 2015].

Strand, K., Marullo, S., Cutforth, N., Stoecker, R. and Donohue, P. (2003) Principles of Best Practice for Community-Based Research. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. [Online] Vol.9, pp.5–15. Available: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ671675. [Accessed 14 Dec 2016].

Sullivan, G. (2010) Art Practice as Research: Inquiry in Visual Arts - Google Books [Online].

Second. Los Angeles: SAGE Publishing. Available: https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=vk4TuxyH47AC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&d

q=exhibition+practice&ots=W8Gx- VquGe&sig=CiWJkUOQD_x6WULrTaVobH6zM0w#v=onepage&q&f=false [Accessed 15 Dec 2016].

Sulsters, W. a (2005) Mental mapping , Viewing the urban landscapes of the mind. In: International conference ‘Doing, thinking, feeling home: The mental geography of residential environments’. [Online]. Delft: TU Delft Research Repository, pp.1–5. Available: http://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:fc71de16-b485-4888-b6fe- a9d2771d9e4a?collection=research. [Accessed 10 Mar 2016].

Talen, E. (2000) Bottom-Up GIS. Journal of the American Planning Association. [Online] Vol.66 (3), pp.279–294. Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944360008976107. [Accessed 10 Mar 2016].

Talen, E. and Ellis, C. (2004) Cities as art: Exploring the possibility of an aesthetic dimension in planning. Planning Theory and Practice. [Online] Vol.5 (1), pp.11–32. Available: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0- 1842789108&partnerID=40&md5=dca3072088c259d3a068c651d9efb73c. [Accessed 16 Mar 2016].

Terras, M. (2011) The Digital Wunderkammer: Flickr as a Platform for Amateur Cultural and Heritage Content. Library Trends. Vol. 59 (4) 2011, pp. 686-706

The British Standards Institution (2013) BS7913 Guide to the conservation of Historic Buildings. London: BSI

The Experience (2018) Go-karting in Glasgow [Online]. Available: https://www.theexperience.org.uk/electric-karting/ [Accessed 29 Jun 2018].

The Mighty Creatives (2015) Investigating cultural activity for, with and by children and young people in historic houses in the East Midlands [Online] Available https://www.themightycreatives.com/assets/documents/TMC_Historic_Houses_in_the_ East_Midlands_Report_2015.pdf [Accessed 29 Jun 2015].

The Scottish Government (2010) Planning Advice Note 3/2010 Community Engagement.

Edinburgh: The Scottish Government

The Scottish Government (2013) Creating Places- A policy statement on architecture and place for Scotland [Online]. Edinburgh. Available: https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/publication/2013

/06/creating-places-policy-statement-architecture-place-scotland/documents/00425496- pdf/00425496-pdf/govscot%3Adocument. [Accessed 02 Jan 2019].

The Scottish Graduate School of Social Science (2018) About SGSSS [Online]. Available:

http//www.sgsss.ac.uk/about-us/ [Accessed 10 Dec 2018].

Thornton, A. (2013) Artist, Researcher, Teacher: [Online]. Intellect Books. Available: https://www.dawsonera.com:443/abstract/9781841507804. [Accessed 05 Dec 2016].

Trell, E.-M. and Hoven, B. Van (2010) Making sense of place : exploring creative and (inter) active research methods with young people Making sense of place. Fennia. [Online] Vol.188 (1), pp.91–104. Available: http://ojs.tsv.fi/index.php/fennia/article/viewFile/2522/3447. [Accessed 10 Mar 2016].

Trower, S. (2011) Place, Writing and Voice in Oral History. 1st ed. Place, Writing and Voice in Oral History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ulmer, J. B. and Koro-Ljungberg, M. (2014) Writing Visually Through (Methodological) Events and Cartography. Qualitative Inquiry. [Online] Vol.21, pp.138–152. Available: http://qix.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1077800414542706. [Accessed 17 Mar 2016].

Umemoto, K. (2001) Walking in Another’s Shoes: Epistemological Challenges in Participatory Planning . Journal of Planning Education and Research . [Online] Vol.21 (1), pp.17–31. Available: http://jpe.sagepub.com/content/21/1/17.abstract. [Accessed 27

Feb 2016].

Understanding Scottish Places (2017) Paisley- Understanding Scottish Places [Online]. Available: https://www.usp.scot/Town?mainTownName=Paisley [Accessed 1 Mar 2018].

UNeECC (2016) History – UNeECC [Online]. Available: http://uneecc.org/european- capitals-of-culture/history/ [Accessed 27 May 2018].

UNESCO (2014) Culture, Creativity and Sustainable Development [Online]. Available: https://en.unesco.org/system/files/Florence Declaration_4 October 2014_EN_3.pdf [Accessed 26 Feb 2015].

United Nations (2015a) Habitat Iii Issue Papers 4 – Urban Culture and Heritage Issue Paper on Urban Culture and Heritage Vol.2015 (May). [Online]. Available: https://unhabitat.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Habitat-III-Issue-Paper-4_Urban- Culture-and-Heritage.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2018].

United Nations (2015b) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Illustrated Edition) [Online]. Available: http://www.un.org/en/udhrbook/pdf/udhr_booklet_en_web.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2018].

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2014) The Evolution of National Urban Policies: A Global Overview. [Online]. Available: https://unhabitat.org/books/the- evolution-of-national-urban-policies/ [Accessed 27 May 2018].

University of Glasgow College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences (n.d.) Introductory

guide to understanding impact [Online]. Glasgow. Available: https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_433250_en.pdf [Accessed 30 May 2018].

University of the West of Scotland (2016) University Ethics Committee Guidelines for Ethical Research [Online]. Available: http://www.uws.ac.uk/uploadedfiles/flexible_page_content/about_uws/overview/univers ity_ethics/guidelines for ethical practice in research and scholarship - refreshed september 2016.pdf. [Accessed 23 Nov 2016].

Valletta 2018 Foundation (2012) Imagine 18: Final Application for the Title of European Capital of Culture 2018 in Malta [Online]. Available: https://www.dropbox.com/s/otijjg8y2qw98ty/V18-BB.pdf?dl= [Accessed 20May 2015].

Vitae (2011) Researcher Development Framework [Online]. Available: http://www.vitae.ac.uk/researchers/428241/Vitae-Researcher-Development- Framework.html. [Accessed 20 Dec 2016].

Waitt, G. and Gibson, C. (2009) Creative Small Cities: Rethinking the Creative Economy in Place. Urban Studies . [Online] Vol.46 (5–6), pp.1223–1246. Available: http://usj.sagepub.com/content/46/5-6/1223.abstract. [Accessed 27 Feb 2015].

Walton, J. K. (2012) ‘Social tourism’ in Britain: history and prospects. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. (April 2015), pp.1–16.

Waterton, E. and Smith, L. (2010) The recognition and misrecognition of community heritage. International Journal of Heritage Studies. Vol.16 (1–2), pp.4–15.

Waterton, E., Watson, S., Waterton, E., Watson, S., Wu, Z., Hou, S., Haldrup, M., Borenholdt, J. O., Silverman, H., Khafajah, S. A., Badran, A., Moody, J., Witcomb, A., Light, D., Johnson, N. C., Crouch, D., Sather-Wagstaff, J., Staiff, R., Vargas-Sanchez, A., Lobley, N., Ramshaw, G., Gammon, S., Gnecco, C., Viejo-Rose, D., Stig Sorensen,

M. L., Harrison, R., Giblin, J., Winter, T., Neal, C., Dicks, B., Reed, A., Reading, A., Schofield, J., Pendlebury, J., Schramm, K., Watson, S., Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M. R., Papageorgiou, G. C., Bushell, R., Holtorf, C., Hogberg, A., Watson, S. and Waterton, E. (2015) The Palgrave Handbook of Contemporary Heritage Research. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781137293565. [Accessed 08 Mar 2015].

Watson, R. (2009) Mapping and Contemporary Art. Cartographic Journal, The. Vol.46 (4), pp.293–307.

Weiner, D., Harris, T. M. and Craig, W. J. (2002) Community Participation and Geographic Information Systems. Society. pp.1–18.

Welsh Government (2014) Culture and Poverty Harnessing the power of the arts, culture and heritage to promote social justice in Wales [Online]. Available:

http://gov.wales/docs/drah/publications/140313-culture-and-poverty-en.pdf [Accessed 1

Mar 2018].

Welsh Government Historic Environment Service (2017) Historic Wales — Cadw Workstream: Business Case for Change [Online]. Available: http://gov.wales/docs/drah/publications/171208-historic-wales-cadw-workstream- business-case-for-change-en.pdf [Accessed 8 Feb 2018].

Wheeldon, J. and Åhlberg, M. (2012) Visualizing Social Science Research: Maps, Methods and Meaning. London: SAGE.

Willshaw, E. (2005) A Kaleidoscope of culture. Working with older people. Vol.9 (4), pp.12–15.

Wilson, K. and O’Brien, D. (2012) It’s Not the Winning... Reconsidering the Cultural City: A report on the Cultural Cities Research Network 2011-12. London.

Wilson, N. (2010) Social creativity: re‐qualifying the creative economy. International Journal of Cultural Policy. Vol.16 (3), pp.367–381.