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6.5 Opportunities for further development of the research

The digital cultural asset map which I produced has been used as part of the UK City of Culture evidence base, and there are applications for digital cultural asset mapping beyond such a live context, which are relevant beyond the remit of this research project. I would like

to develop a toolkit for cultural planning as it works in the in United Kingdom, similar to that produced in Canada (Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated, 2010) but drawing on the relevant policy and developments in this area and the lessons learned in producing my research. Examples throughout the UK of cultural mapping exist, but to date there is not a comprehensive guide for undertaking cultural mapping projects in a UK or Scottish context. Similarly as criticism has been levelled at cultural asset mapping for “projects.. underpinned by “flat” datasets that are compiled once, rather than dynamic databases that are used and maintained on a frequent, ongoing basis” (Lee and Gilmore, 2012, p.9) there is a clear opportunity to address this by exploring the legacy and longevity of my research further, developing links established during this PhD.


Linking social media analytics to digital cultural asset maps may help increase their reach and their usability across both the general population and for mapping authorities; Esri have recently developed new templates which allow the integration of tweets and Instagram posts into a map, and juxtaposition on existing data sets, which they highlight as “a good choice when you want to assess local sentiment on current events” (Esri, 2018). Jung (2015) makes an argument for integrating GIS with social media, producing code clouds by which one can extract and analyse quantitative and qualitative data. The detailed level of analysis proposed by Jung requires visual and numerical analysis, outwith the scope of my research project, but does present an opportunity for investigation. For researchers this is an interesting development, and provides distinct ethical challenges for although it may be a way to sidestep the argument that “cartographic content collectively produced via social media remains largely the expression of the values of a relatively small number of contributors with technological ability” (Caquard, 2013, p.147), if everyone is inadvertently producing a map simply by leaving a digital footprint, do researchers have the automatic right to analyse and interpret this? Applying the argument that this is “more a matter of copyright... than ethics” (Farrimond, 2013, p.184) as users are knowingly making information available online through their public profiles is a useful point in this respect, but it remains controversial as researchers should make their sources of information clear, and cite appropriately and ethically.


One of the disciplines which has the greatest potential to use multimodal asset mapping is tourism; particularly when consumer spending is now trending towards spending on unique experiences rather than owning consumables (Barclays, 2018); cultural experiences can be

highlighted and explored easily, riding on the desire for current policy aimed at encouraging European cities to tell their story through culture:


“Cultural heritage provides European countries and regions with a unique identity that creates compelling city narratives providing the basis for effective marketing strategies aimed at developing cultural tourism and attracting investment” (CHCfE Consortium, 2015, p.20)


Narrative is key to this marking, digital cultural asset mapping and the multi modal methods presented in this research can certainly help with telling the story of a place, and it been suggested that the taxonomy developed by Lynch can be applied to the place marketing (Hospers, 2010) therefore there is potential for the use of the cognitive mapping exercises to reveal the cultural landmarks and nodes perceived by residents, and repeat the exercise with visitors, businesses or different sectors of the cultural industries thereby creating a map of sub topics and features combining and drawing upon multiple perceptions of the area, with different groups . Trower (2011, p.16) cites studies relating to specific groups as diverse as gay men in London and organic farmers in New Zealand and there are also studies to suggest that musical influences are particularly suited to being mapped due to the association of musical roots with place (Shobe and Banis, 2010, Cohen, 2012b, Long, 2013). This type of practice-based research would be a useful tool to reveal consistencies and conflicts between the image of a place and its officially marketed brand.


Extending the remit of the research to follow a more structured form of digital empowerment is a possibility, participants who express a specific interest in one particular form of storytelling could be offered opportunities to engage in more storytelling and workshops to develop skills, perhaps in partnership with those who currently undertake digital initiatives (local and national initiatives exist such as CoderDojo, internationally there are possibilities through organisations such as Google Cultural Institute, Google Arts and Culture Platform or Mozilla Open Web). At a school level the use of digital storytelling ties in with Scottish Curriculum for Excellence objectives (McGillivray et al., 2015a) and international digital literacy equivalents. Digital skills are seen as increasingly important within the context of cultural management, a recent study highlighted that “four emerging job role-profiles have been identified to help museums face the digital challenges: Digital strategy manager, Digital Collections Curator, Digital Interactive Experience Developer, Online Community Manager” (Mu.SA: Museum Sector Alliance, 2017, p.3); such job titles highlight the importance of

digital skills in the cultural field and hint that digital storytelling and digital cultural asset mapping will clearly continue to be relevant techniques and methods in cultural engagement, along with the creative ethos employed in cognitive mapping.


In a critique of methods used to engage young people with the idea of place, Trell (2010) notes that creative skills are involved in making individual videos, but using video whilst doing a walking tour involves more interaction between those taking part in the research. My research did not involve walking tours, but this offers a rich field by which to investigate digital storytelling and cultural participation further. Oral history can be particularly useful for working with younger people who want a say in managing cultural sites (The Mighty Creatives, 2015) and there is some evidence that using mapping and graphics programmes can help connect generations (Historypin, 2013). Creative representations of an area may be developed through the hidden stories revealed in cognitive mapping and digital storytelling, for example a 3D rendering of a study area, or a virtual reality encounter. This could be an immersive experience, navigated through headsets such as Google cardboard, or an on-screen display for home or exhibition use.


Making memoryscapes from cognitive mapping, particularly with those who have lived in an area for a long time and have seen many changes, is a practical application of the multimodal technique, which was originally suggested by Butler (2007) as an oral history method. The work presented in section 4.0 shows the effectiveness of both cognitive mapping and digital storytelling for capturing such memories, and enabling wider dissemination of these as part of asset mapping. As “the importance of memories of the city amongst ex-residents is a neglected theme in the literature on counter-urbanisation” (Bonnett and Alexander, 2013, p.394) the replication of the methods used in this research with participants who have moved away from their home town would be a useful area for development. An increased use of arts based activities in mental health settings suggests that there may be some therapeutic benefits to engaging with cultural activities at all ages (Royal Society for Public Health, 2013, p.58, European Commission, 2015, p.11), which is of note when applying for funding to complete complementary research work in this field.


Skains (2015) argues that tracing the narrative which is present when engaging with digital technologies is difficult, as we are engaging with multiple platforms and ways of reading, often at the same time, however there is potential for integration of digital storytelling with the power of GIS as using a geotagged approach to analyse the underlying issues discussed in

a place can revealing discursive patterns which may otherwise be unseen. The extension of the practice based research to explore this further would be beneficial to the geohumanities field, especially as this is recognised as an emerging and growing area academically (Rossetto, 2013).


Multi-modal cultural asset mapping is a valuable research approach for being able to capture community voices around cultural life, and particularly relevant within the current impact- driven contemporary research environment (Research Excellence Framework, 2017) where involvement of partners is important. I feel strongly that the everyone has a right to contribute to the cultural life of their community from a primary to professional level and plan to help champion this through academic research as well as non-traditional forms of academic communication, to contribute towards original knowledge across several research fields. In considering the development of this PhD research, it is particularly relevant to note that heritage is currently one of the priority funding areas for the Arts and Humanities Research Council within the UK, which indicates a valuable opportunity for developing heritage asset mapping (Arts and Humanities Research Council, 2016, p.4). Accessing funding for cultural research and practice is easier when one can demonstrate the wide ranging benefits of a project and for those involved in cultural work, it is heartening to see studies into a recognition of the effect of investing in culture; “safeguarding cultural heritage works as a “multiplier” through which investment can have positive impacts beyond that initially intended, thereby increasing the level of benefit and sustainability of the initial investment” (CHCfE Consortium, 2015, p.15). If “relatively modest investment in cultural heritage can pay substantial dividends” (European Commission, 2015, p.5) then it is important to continue championing this cause and harnessing this leverage effect across policy domains to ensure that it remains in discussion and a diverse community of voices can be heard. Word count – 42,986

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