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Assets are things which are identified as having an attributed value. Lee (2009) argues that there are two types of cultural assets, hard assets which are physical and soft assets which encompass festivals and events.

British Standard 7913, which relates to historic building conservation, refers to a need for “asset management methodologies” for the physical management of the condition and operation of a historic building (The British Standards Institution, 2013, p.9). These heritage management methodologies form a practical guide which a property manager would consult in order to assess the appropriate course of action when intervention was needed (such as the frequency of roof repair or urgent action in case of risk to building fabric). The cultural assets within my research may be historic buildings, part of Lee’s (2009, p.500) hard assets definition, yet this is not the main focus; historic buildings and structures can be cultural assets, but only form part of the cultural picture of an area and they can often be viewed as the opposite of assets, unfortunately becoming a liability which requires financial input and careful management and community intervention is needed to prevent them becoming further at risk (Civic Voice, 2015).

There are “push” and “pull” factors which can influence community perception of assets (Delrieu and Gibson, 2017a) and Gilmore (2017) suggests that cultural research reveals community assets of value, for example pubs, churches and parks. This strongly supports the argument that:

1. Heritage is everywhere;

2. Heritage is for everyone; and that

3. We are all heritage experts” (Schofield, 2014, p.2)

Assets will thus be present in all areas, and people should have the opportunity to express their opinion on what assets exist, where, and what value these possess. The multi-method approach taken within this research aimed to align with this threefold principle, noting that heritage and assets are different, but are very closely interlinked within the city of culture infrastructure (not all assets are heritage, not all heritage is a definable asset, using the

different tools reveals matters which can be considered “assets” within a cultural competition).